This Article is dedicated to my former law professor, Larry Echo Hawk, a member of the Pawnee Nation and Assistant Secretary of the Interior for Indian Affairs for President Barack Obama. I am greatly indebted to those who have provided helpful insights and comments on earlier drafts and underlying research, including Akhil Amar, Jack Balkin, William Baude, Steve Calabresi, Bradford Clark, Nicholas Cole, William Ewald, Lawrence Friedman, Shlomo Klapper, David Landau, Soren Schmidt, Michalyn Steele, Larry Solum, and Kevin Worthen. I thank my parents, John B. Updike and V. Lauri Updike, for acting as technical editors, and the very able editors of The University of Chicago Law Review. My heartfelt thanks also goes to Lee Arnold at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania for providing access to James Wilson’s Papers and particularly his drafts of the Constitution, and to Julie Miller, Julie Biggs, and Jennifer Evers from the Conservation Division of the Library of Congress for providing images and doing further forensic research of Randolph’s sketch. Finally, my thanks go to the indispensable Yale Law librarians, who never cease to lend valuable and timely assistance.