Norma Z. Paige Professor of Law at New York University School of Law
George T. Lowy Professor of Law at New York University School of Law
We benefited from helpful comments from David Abrams, Cindy Alexander, Miriam Baer, Rachel Barkow, Jayne Barnard, Michal Barzuza, Lisa Bernstein, Samuel Buell, Oscar Couwenberg, Brandon Garrett, William Hubbard, Edward Iacobucci, Louis Kaplow,Michael Klausner, Brett McDonnell, Mark Ramseyer, Eva Schliephake, Steven Shavell, Matthew Spitzer, Abraham Wickelgren, Josephine van Zeben, and participants at the annual meetings of the Business Associations Section of the Association of American Law Schools, the American Law and Economics Association, the European Law and Economics Association, and the Society for Institutional and Organizational Economics, as well as participants at workshops at Brooklyn Law School; UCLA School of Law; Columbia Law School; ETH Zurich; Harvard Law School; NYU School of Law; University of Pennsylvania Law School; University of Pompeu Fabra; Queen’s Law School, Ontario, Canada; Stanford Law School; University of Texas Law School; University of Toronto Faculty of Law; University of Virginia School of Law; and Western Law School, Ontario, Canada. We also would like to thank Brandon Garrett and Vic Khanna for sharing their data on PDAs, which we compared to our own hand-collected dataset. We also thank Brandon Arnold, Rachel Lu Chen, Elias Debbas, Josh Levy, Reagan Lynch, Matt Mutino, Alice Phillips, Jared Roscoe, KyungEun Kimberly Won, and Donna Xu for excellent research assistance, with special thanks to Tristan Favro, Katya Roze, and Cristina Vasile. Jennifer Arlen is grateful for the financial support of the New York University School of Law. Marcel Kahan’s research was supported by the Milton and Miriam Handler Foundation.