Professor of Law and Co-director, Berkeley Center in Law, Business and the Economy, UC Berkeley School of Law; Robert B. and Candice J. Haas Visiting Professor of Law, Harvard Law School; Senior Economist (Adjunct), RAND Corporation
Thanks to Robert Bartlett, Alicia Davis-Evans, Todd Henderson, Kim Hogrief, Arthur Levitt, Patrick McGurn, Nell Minow, Maureen Mulligan, Adam Pritchard, Robert Reville, two anonymous referees, and conference participants at The University of Chicago Law School, University of Michigan, and the American Bar Association Tort Trial & Insurance Practice Section for helpful comments and discussions, and to the RAND Corporation Institution for Civil Justice for generous support. Many thanks as well to the Corporate Library for granting me access to their data. All errors are mine.
Associate Professor of Law and Business, University of Southern California Law School
In preparing this Article, I benefited greatly from conversations with several private-equity partners (both limited and general) as well as the excellent research assistance of Tracey Chenoweth. Thanks also, for insightful comments and advice, to Bobby Bartlett, Kate Litvak, Bob Rasmussen, Larry Ribstein, and Randall Thomas.
Mildred van Voorhis Jones Chair, University of Illinois College of Law
Thanks for comments on previous versions to Amitai Aviram, Steve Bainbridge, Vic Fleischer, Ron Gilson, Richard Squire, Michael Weisbach, and Charles Whitehead, and participants at workshops at the Association of American Law Schools, University of Connecticut, Fordham, UCLA School of Law, George Washington University, and the Symposium, The Going-private Phenomenon: Causes and Implications at The University of Chicago Law School. For a longer version of this Article, see Larry E. Ribstein, Uncorporating the Large Firm (University of Illinois Law & Economics Research Paper No LE08-016, May 27, 2008), online at http://ssrn.com/ abstract=1138092 (visited Jan 11, 2009).
Frank K. Houston Professor of Finance, Vanderbilt University
Randall S. Thomas
John S. Beasley Professor of Law and Business, Vanderbilt University Law School
The authors would like to thank Harry DeAngelo, Todd Henderson, James Spindler, Robert Thompson, Charles Whitehead, the Harvard Law School Faculty Workshop, the University of Pennsylvania Law School Business Law Scholarship Workshop, and the participants of The University of Chicago Symposium, The Going-private Phenomenon: Causes and Implications, for their helpful comments.
Assistant Professor, University of Texas School of Law
The initial research for this Article was conducted while I was an Olin Fellow in Law and Economics at Columbia Law School. I would like to thank Bernie Black, John Donohue, Merritt Fox, Ron Gilson, Victor Goldberg, Jeff Gordon, Zohar Goshen, Michael Guttentag, Todd Henderson, Michael Jensen, Steven Kaplan, Michael Klausner, Ed Rock, Jeff Strnad, Susan Woodward, the editors of The University of Chicago Law Review, and participants in The Going-private Phenomenon: Causes and Implications, the annual meeting of the American Law and Economics Association, and the Columbia Law School Blue Sky Lunch for comments. I especially thank the venture capitalists, venture capital lawyers, and representatives of institutional investors who were willing to answer my questions and in some cases provide the limited partnership agreements that are the focus of this Article. Those who have given me permission to name them include: Steven Anderson at Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers; Alan Austin at Silver Lake Partners; Micah Avni of Jerusalem Global Ventures; Jonathan Axelrad at Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati; Thomas Beaudoin at Testa, Hurwitz & Thibeault; Bill Campbell at Ater Wynne; Craig Dauchy at Cooley Godward Kronish; Ken DeAngelis at Austin Ventures; Alex Gould at Stanford Law School; Ryan Lester, formerly at O’Melveny & Myers; Andrei Manoliu; J.B. Pritzker; John Quigley at Nassau Capital; and Mark Tanoury at Cooley Godward Kronish. I owe special thanks to Susan Woodward at Sand Hill Econometrics for sharing data on VC performance with me.
Professor of Law, UC Berkeley; Director, Berkeley Center for Law, Business and the Economy
Thanks to Robert Bartlett, Lucian Bebchuk, Richard Epstein, Larry Ribstein, Amanda Rose, and other participants in the Symposium, The Going-private Phenomenon: Causes and Implications at The University of Chicago Law School. Ching-Tang Chen, Joey Hipolito, Alex Jadin, Amad Judeh, Thomas King, I-Jung Lee, and Tal Niv provided extremely valuable research assistance. I am also thankful to Larry Goldstein of Santa Monica Partners for helpful conversations on the challenges faced by investors in firms that have gone dark. Financial support from the Boalt Hall Fund is gratefully acknowledged.
Head of the US Mergers and Acquisitions Group, Mayer Brown LLP; Lecturer in Law, The University of Chicago Law School
I want to thank my colleagues Charles Wu, Nina Flax, and Daniel Horwood for their assistance on this Article and Jessica Waller, one of my students, whose paper was a helpful resource. I also want to thank Robert Helman and Frederick Thomas for their comments.
Assistant Professor of Law, The University of Chicago Law School
Thanks to Kelli Alces, Douglas Baird, William Birdthistle, Rosalind Dixon, Bernard Harcourt, Lee Fennell, William Landes, Anup Malani, Jonathan Masur, Richard McAdams, Martha Nussbaum, Randy Picker, Eric Posner, David Strauss, Vova Shklovsky, David Weisbach, and David Yosifon for helpful suggestions. Rebecca Fike, Nicholas Lawhead, and Ruben Rodrigues provided excellent research assistance.