Separation of Powers

Of Angels, Pins, and For-Cause Removal: A Requiem for the Passive Virtues
Jerry L. Mashaw
Jerry L. Mashaw is Sterling Professor Emeritus and Professorial Lecturer at the Yale Law School.

This Essay concerns a constitutional puzzle, the puzzle of for-cause removal. For a century the Supreme Court has been attempting to answer a simple question: when is it constitutional for Congress to provide that an agency head or lower official can be removed only for cause?

Out of the Separation-of-Powers Frying Pan and Into the Nondelegation Fire: How the Court’s Decision in Seila Law Makes CFPB’s Unlawful Structure Even Worse
Markham S. Chenoweth
Michael P. DeGrandis
Markham S. Chenoweth & Michael P. DeGrandis are General Counsel and Senior Litigation Counsel, respectively, at the New Civil Liberties Alliance.

NCLA filed an amicus curiae brief on the prevailing side in Seila Law.

Institutional Loyalties in Constitutional Law
David Fontana
Associate Professor of Law, George Washington University

Our thanks to Michael Abramowicz, Joseph Blocher, Mary Anne Case, Justin Driver, Alison LaCroix, Jonathan Masur, Jon Michaels, Douglas NeJaime, Martha Nussbaum, David Pozen, David Schleicher, Paul Schied, Naomi Schoenbaum, Micah Schwartzman, Michael Selmi, Ganesh Sitaraman, Lior Strahilevitz, and Laura Weinrib for thoughtful comments and suggestions. Lael Weinberger, Brent Cooper, and other editors at the Review also supplied useful critical thoughts. We also received helpful feedback from workshops at the George Washington Law School and the University of Chicago Law School. Support for one of us (Huq) was supplied by the Frank J. Cicero, Jr. Fund. Our errors are our responsibility alone.

Aziz Z. Huq
Frank and Bernice J. Greenberg Professor of Law, University of Chicago Law School

The Constitution’s separation of powers implies the existence of three distinct and separate branches.

Emergency Lawmaking after 9/11 and 7/7
Adrian Vermeule
Professor of Law, Harvard Law School

I wish to acknowledge a general debt of inspiration to Mark Tushnet’s studies of political controls on emergency powers, although my views differ from Tushnet’s. See generally, for example, Mark Tushnet, The Political Constitution of Emergency Powers: Some Lessons from Hamdan, 91 Minn L Rev 1451 (2007); Mark Tushnet, The Political Constitution of Emergency Powers: Parliamentary and Separation-of-Powers Regulation, 3 Intl J L in Context 275 (2008). For helpful comments, thanks to Jack Goldsmith, Eric Posner, Philip Rumney, Matthew Stephenson, Cass Sunstein, Mark Tushnet, workshop participants at Harvard Law School, and participants at a conference held at Harvard Law School to discuss Cass R. Sunstein, Worst-case Scenarios (Harvard 2007). Thanks to Elisabeth Theodore and Jennifer Shkabatur for helpful research assistance.

The Unbundled Executive
Christopher R. Berry
Assistant Professor of Public Policy, The University of Chicago
Jacob E. Gersen
Assistant Professor of Law, The University of Chicago

We are grateful to Bruce Ackerman, Rachel Brewster, Ethan Bueno de Mesquita, Bob Cooter, Rosalind Dixon, John Ferejohn, David Fontana, Heather Gerken, Tom Ginsburg, Dan Ho, Cheng-Yi Huang, Alison LaCroix, Daryl Levinson, John Matsusaka, Richard McAdams, Drew Navikas, Anne O’Connell, Eric Posner, Adam Samaha, Lior Strahilevitz, Madhavi Sunder, Cass Sunstein, Matthew Stephenson, and Adrian Vermeule for helpful comments and conversations. Johanna Chan, Monica Groat, Stacey Nathan, and Peter Wilson provided excellent research assistance. Financial support was provided by the John M. Olin Foundation and the George J. Stigler Center for the Study of the Economy and the State.

Executive Branch Contempt of Congress
Josh Chafetz
Assistant Professor of Law, Cornell Law School

Thanks to Greg Alexander, Akhil Amar, Will Baude, Aaron Bruhl, Michael Dorf, Joey Fishkin, Marin Levy, Bernadette Meyler, David Pozen, Catherine Roach, and Steve Sachs for helpful and thought-provoking comments on earlier drafts, and to Kevin Jackson for excellent research assistance. Any remaining errors or infelicities are, of course, my own.