Appellate Law

Reconsidering Murdock: State-Law Reversals as Constitutional Avoidance
Jonathan F. Mitchell
Assistant Professor of Law, George Mason University School of Law

Thanks to Michael Abramowicz, William Baude, A.J. Bellia, Stephanos Bibas, Frederic Bloom, Curtis Bradley, Mark Chenoweth, Eric Claeys, Brad Clark, Richard Epstein, Brian Fitzpatrick, Rick Garnett, Jack Goldsmith, John Harrison, John Inazu, Greg Jacob, Ashley Keller, Gary Lawson, Jason Mazzone, Tom Miles, Adam Mortara, Nelson Lund, Nicholas Quinn Rosenkranz, David Strauss, Eugene Volokh, and to workshop participants at George Mason University and the Virginia Junior Faculty Forum for comments.

Following Lower-Court Precedent
Aaron-Andrew P. Bruhl
Associate Professor, University of Houston Law Center.

For helpful comments, I thank Andrew Coan, Jim Hawkins, Toby Heytens, Randy Kozel, David Kwok, Anita Krishnakumar, Ethan Leib, Hillel Levin, Teddy Rave, Michael Solimine, audiences at South Texas College of Law and the University of Houston Law Center, and the editors of this journal. I thank David Klein and Stefanie Lindquist for sharing data that I used to perform some calculations in Part III.A. I thank Andrew Campbell and Kirsty Davis for research assistance.