First Amendment

Lawful but Awful? Control over Legal Speech by Platforms, Governments, and Internet Users
Daphne Keller
Daphne Keller directs the Program on Platform Regulation at Stanford’s Cyber Policy Center. Until 2015, she was Google’s Associate General Counsel.

She thanks Max Levy for his work on this Essay.

In his quixotic bid to buy and reform Twitter, Elon Musk swiftly arrived at the same place nearly every tech mogul does: he doesn’t want censorship, but he does want to be able to suppress some legal speech.

Easterbrook on Academic Freedom
Aziz Huq
Assistant Professor of Law, The University of Chicago Law School

Thanks to Martha Nussbaum, Geoffrey Stone, and Lior Strahilevitz for helpful comments. All errors are mine.

The Dale Problem: Property and Speech under the Regulatory State
Louis Michael Seidman
Carmack Waterhouse Professor of Constitutional Law, Georgetown University Law Center

Many people helped me think through the problems addressed in this article. I am especially grateful to Larry Alexander, Randy Barnett, David Bernstein, Julie Cohen, Lee Anne Fennell, Martin Lederman, Gary Peller, Adam Samaha, Geoffrey Stone, Mark Tushnet, and Rebecca Tushnet, and to participants at workshops at The University of Chicago Law School, Georgetown University Law Center, and Loyola University Law School. I received excellent research assistance from James Banda and Richard Harris.

Religion, Schools, and Judicial Decision Making: An Empirical Perspective
Michael Heise
Professor, Cornell Law School
Gregory C. Sisk
Laghi Distinguished Chair in Law, University of St. Thomas School of Law

We thank Dawn M. Chutkow as well as participants in the Understanding Education in the United States Symposium at the University of Chicago Law School for comments on an earlier draft. Professor Sisk offers thanks to his assistant, Bethany Fletcher, for recording data coding and to law students Eric Beecher and Alicia Long for assistance with opinion coding. A spreadsheet containing our data set, regression run results, coding of each decision, coding of each judge, and code books may be found at /

Orwell’s Armchair
Derek E. Bambauer
Associate Professor of Law, University of Arizona James E. Rogers College of Law

The author thanks Faisal Alam, Jelena Kristic, Brad Reid, Chris Vidiksis, and Eugene Weber for expert research assistance. Thanks for helpful suggestions and discussion are owed to Marvin Ammori, Miriam Baer, Katherine Barnes, Scott Boone, Annemarie Bridy, Ellen Bublick, Robin Effron, Kirsten Engel, Tom Folsom, James Grimmelmann, Rob Heverly, Dan Hunter, Margo Kaplan, Rebecca Kysar, Brian Lee, Lyrissa Lidsky, Sarah Light, Tom Lin, Gregg Macey, Irina Manta, David Marcus, Toni Massaro, Milton Mueller, Thinh Nguyen, Mark Noferi, Liam O’Melinn, Jim Park, David Post, Christopher Robertson, Simone Sepe, William Sjostrom, Roy Spece, Nic Suzor, Alan Trammell, Greg Vetter, Brent White, Mary Wong, Jane Yakowitz Bambauer, Peter Yu, Jonathan Zittrain, the participants in the IP Scholars Roundtable at Drake University School of Law, the participants in a workshop at Florida State University College of Law, and the participants in a workshop at the University of Arizona James E. Rogers College of Law. The author gratefully acknowledges the Dean’s Summer Research Stipend Program, Dean Michael Gerber, and President Joan G. Wexler at Brooklyn Law School for financial support. The author welcomes comments at