Courts, Congress, and the Conduct of Foreign Relations
Kristen E. Eichensehr
Assistant Professor, UCLA School of Law

For their generous engagement with this project, I am grateful to Aslı Bâli, Will Baude, Curt Bradley, Sam Bray, Josh Chafetz, Zach Clopton, Stephen Gardbaum, Carole Goldberg, Robert Goldstein, Jon Michaels, Kal Raustiala, Richard Re, Ryan Scoville, Shirin Sinnar, Stephen Vladeck, the editors of The University of Chicago Law Review, and participants in the Junior Faculty Federal Courts Workshop, Southern California International Law Scholars Workshop, and UCLA School of Law Summer Works-in-Progress Workshop. Andrew Brown, Nicholas Garver, Danielle Hesse, and Joshua Ostrer provided excellent research assistance.

In the US constitutional system, the executive branch generally conducts foreign relations. But in recent years, the nonexecutive branches—the judiciary and Congress—have challenged the exclusivity of the president’s authority to conduct foreign relations by opening direct channels of communication with foreign governments’ executive branches.

Courts’ Limited Ability to Protect Constitutional Rights
Adam S. Chilton
Assistant Professor of Law and Walter Ma nder Research Scholar, The University of Chicago Law School
Mila Versteeg
Professor of Law, University of Virgin ia School of Law
In October 2015, Poland’s newly elected conservative government moved swiftly to neutralize the country’s Constitutional Tribunal.
Notice-and-Comment Judicial Decisionmaking
Michael Abramowicz
Professor, The George Washington University Law School
Thomas B. Colby
Associate Professor, The George Washington University Law School

In the spirit of its subject matter, this Article was made available for public comment, and we incorporated excellent suggestions from Steve Charnovitz, David Fontana, Fred Lawrence, Ronald Levin, Eric Lipman, Chip Lupu, and Richard Pierce.

Preventive Adjudication
Samuel L. Bray
Executive Director, Stanford Constitutional Law Center, Stanford Law School

Thanks for helpful comments to Ittai Bar-Siman-Tov, Will Baude, Noa Ben-Asher, Brett Dakin, Elizabeth Emens, Robert Ferguson, Chad Flanders, Abbe Gluck, Jamal Greene, Adam Gustafson, Ranjit Hakim, Philip Hamburger, Joseph Landau, Jennifer Laurin, Henry Monaghan, Jessica Roberts, Bertrall Ross, Elizabeth Schneider, Henry Smith, James Stewart, Tracy Thomas, Andrew Varcoe, and workshop participants at Columbia Law School.

Suing Courts
Frederic Bloom
Professor of Law, Brooklyn Law School
Christopher Serkin
Professor of Law, Brooklyn Law School

We thank Rebecca Aviel, Ben Barros, Ursula Bentele, Peter Byrne, Michael Cahill, Ed Cheng, John Echeverria, George Fisher, Susan Herman, Brian Lee, Amnon Lehavi, Gregg Macey, Jonathan Masur, Jon Michaels, Eduardo Peñalver, Jim Pfander, Shelley Saxer, Nelson Tebbe, Jay Tidmarsh, Alan Trammell, and the faculty workshop participants at Vanderbilt Law School for helpful comments and conversations. We thank Liz Austin, Andrew Kenny, Tammy Wang, and the staff of the University of Chicago Law Review for truly fantastic editorial guidance. And we thank the Brooklyn Law School Dean’s Summer Research Stipend Program for its financial support.

"Equal Right to the Poor"
Richard M. Re
Assistant Professor of Law, UCLA School of Law

Many thanks to Michelle Wilde Anderson, Will Baude, Josh Blackman, Sam Bray, Grace Bridwell, Craig Chosiad, Ryan Doerfler, Laura Donohue, Elliot Dorff, Greg Dubinsky, Kristen Eichensehr, Jonah Gelbach, Robert Goldstein, Mark Greenberg, Tara Leigh Grove, John McGinnis, Aaron Nielson, Jide Nzelibe, Jim Pfander, Alex Potapov, Sabeel Rahman, Larry Sager, Seana Shiffrin, Ganesh Sitaraman, Mila Sohoni, Sabine Tsuruda, Mark Tushnet, Margo Uhrman, David Waddilove, Eugene Volokh, Adam Winkler, Rebecca Zietlow, The University of Chicago Law Review, and participants in the Northwestern Constitutional Law Colloquium, the University of Pennsylvania Legislation Workshop, the Junior Scholars Federal Courts Workshop, and the UCLA School of Law Faculty Colloquium.

During the confirmation hearings for then-Judge John Roberts, Senator Richard Durbin asked about economic equality.